900 million years ago - 12,000 years ago (c.)The microcontinent Avalonia, which makes up present-day Cape Ann, began to form.Location and Setting, Landscape

Between 500 and 900 million years ago, Avalonia a microcontinent that today makes up present-day southwestern Great Britain, southern Ireland, and the coastal Northeast in the United States, began to form. Avalonia is named for the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland. Cape Ann granite was formed during this time frame.

370-175 million years ago, Avalonia crashed into North America and split in two.

Later, between 2.58 million and 12,000 years ago, the Pleistocene, or Ice Age, shaped the present-day landscape of Cape Ann as glacial sediments and boulders were successively removed and deposited.

Museum, Cape Ann. CAMTalks: History Series - A Geological Timescale of Cape Ann with Joseph H. Kennedy Jr. and Sonny Meng Qi Xu - January 15, 2022. 2022, https://vimeo.com/666359734. Ross, Martin. Cape Ann, Massachusetts: its physical and environmental geology. 2015.
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